Course Content
Orientation, introduction to the course
1. Human-Robot Interaction (HRI)
2. Research Methods in Human-Robot Interaction
3. Smart Cities & HRI
The demand for city living is already high, and it appears that this trend will continue. According to the United Nations World Cities Report, by 2050, more than 70% of the world's population will be living and working in cities — one of many reports predicting that cities will play an important role in our future (UN-Habitat, 2022). Thus, as cities are growing in size and scope, it is shaped into complex urban landscape where things, data, and people interact with each other. Everything and everyone has become so connected that Wifi too often fails to meet digital needs, online orders don't arrive fast enough, traffic jams still clog the roads and environmental pollution still weighs on cities. New technologies, technical intelligence, and robots can contribute to the direction of finding solutions to ever-increasing problems and assist the evolution of the growing urban space.
Human-Robot Interaction
About Lesson

Paired Samples t Test

The paired samples t test (also called dependent samples t test) compares two means that are from the same individual, object, or related units. The two means can represent things like (Lazar, 2017): 

  • A measurement taken at two different times (e.g., pre-test and post-test with an intervention administered between the two time points). 
  • A measurement taken under two different conditions (e.g., a test under a “control” condition and an “experimental” condition). 
  • Measurements taken from two halves or sides of a subject or experimental unit (e.g., measuring hearing loss in a subject’s left and right ears). 

The assumptions for using this test are: 

  • The dependent variable should be measured on a continuous scale (i.e., it is measured at the interval or ratio level).  
  • The independent variable should consist of two categorical, related groups or matched pairs. “Related groups” indicates that the same subjects are present in both groups (i.e., a within subject experiment).  
  • There should be no significant outliers.  
  • The distribution of the differences in the dependent variable between the two related groups should be approximately normally distributed.  


For further reading about paired samples t test using SPSS, you may read this:

or watch these videos: 


Lazar, J. , Feng, J. H., Hochheiser, H.  (2017), Research methods in human-computer interaction: Morgan Kaufmann, 2017. 

Rosenthal, R., Rosnow, R., 2008. Essentials of Behavioral Research: Methods and Data Analysis, third ed. McGraw Hill, Boston, MA. 

Sauro, J., and Lewis, J. R., (2016).  Quantifying the user experience: Practical statistics for user research: Morgan Kaufmann. 

Dix, A. (2020). Statistics for HCI: Making Sense of Quantitative Data. Morgan & Claypool Publishers.

Robertson, J., & Kaptein, M. (2016). An introduction to modern statistical methods in HCI (pp. 1-14). Springer International Publishing.

Larson-Hall, J. (2015). A guide to doing statistics in second language research using SPSS and R. Routledge.

Aldrich, J. O. (2018). Using IBM SPSS statistics: An interactive hands-on approach. Sage Publications.

Salcedo, J., & McCormick, K. (2020). SPSS statistics for dummies. John Wiley & Sons.