Course Content
Orientation, introduction to the course
1. Human-Robot Interaction (HRI)
2. Research Methods in Human-Robot Interaction
3. Smart Cities & HRI
The demand for city living is already high, and it appears that this trend will continue. According to the United Nations World Cities Report, by 2050, more than 70% of the world's population will be living and working in cities — one of many reports predicting that cities will play an important role in our future (UN-Habitat, 2022). Thus, as cities are growing in size and scope, it is shaped into complex urban landscape where things, data, and people interact with each other. Everything and everyone has become so connected that Wifi too often fails to meet digital needs, online orders don't arrive fast enough, traffic jams still clog the roads and environmental pollution still weighs on cities. New technologies, technical intelligence, and robots can contribute to the direction of finding solutions to ever-increasing problems and assist the evolution of the growing urban space.
Human-Robot Interaction
About Lesson

One way ANOVA

ANOVA (analysis of variance) is a widely used statistical method to compare the means of two or more groups. When there are only two means to be compared, the calculation of ANOVA is simplified to t tests. ANOVA tests normally return a value called the omnibus F. Therefore, ANOVA tests are also called “F tests” (Lazar, 2017). One way ANOVA is used to compare means for between-group design. 

The assumptions for using one way ANOVA are: 

  • There is independence of observations. This is mostly a study design issue and, as such, you will need to determine whether you believe it is possible that your observations are not independent based on your study design.  
  • There is homogeneity of variances. This means that the population variances in each group are equal.  
  • There should be no significant outliers.  
  • The dependent variable is normally distributed in each group that is being compared in the one-way ANOVA. 

For further reading about one way ANOVA using SPSS, you may read this:

or watch these videos: 


Lazar, J. , Feng, J. H., Hochheiser, H.  (2017), Research methods in human-computer interaction: Morgan Kaufmann, 2017. 

Rosenthal, R., Rosnow, R., 2008. Essentials of Behavioral Research: Methods and Data Analysis, third ed. McGraw Hill, Boston, MA. 

Sauro, J., and Lewis, J. R., (2016).  Quantifying the user experience: Practical statistics for user research: Morgan Kaufmann. 

Dix, A. (2020). Statistics for HCI: Making Sense of Quantitative Data. Morgan & Claypool Publishers.

Robertson, J., & Kaptein, M. (2016). An introduction to modern statistical methods in HCI (pp. 1-14). Springer International Publishing.

Larson-Hall, J. (2015). A guide to doing statistics in second language research using SPSS and R. Routledge.

Aldrich, J. O. (2018). Using IBM SPSS statistics: An interactive hands-on approach. Sage Publications.

Salcedo, J., & McCormick, K. (2020). SPSS statistics for dummies. John Wiley & Sons.