Course Content
Orientation, introduction to the course
1. Human-Robot Interaction (HRI)
2. Research Methods in Human-Robot Interaction
3. Smart Cities & HRI
The demand for city living is already high, and it appears that this trend will continue. According to the United Nations World Cities Report, by 2050, more than 70% of the world's population will be living and working in cities — one of many reports predicting that cities will play an important role in our future (UN-Habitat, 2022). Thus, as cities are growing in size and scope, it is shaped into complex urban landscape where things, data, and people interact with each other. Everything and everyone has become so connected that Wifi too often fails to meet digital needs, online orders don't arrive fast enough, traffic jams still clog the roads and environmental pollution still weighs on cities. New technologies, technical intelligence, and robots can contribute to the direction of finding solutions to ever-increasing problems and assist the evolution of the growing urban space.
Human-Robot Interaction
About Lesson

Requirements for future smart cities

There are a number of key needs for creating a strong future smart city, which are also thought of as the foundation for innovative and sustainable technology. The suggested smart city standards are supported by a review of the most recent cutting-edge research in light of the factors listed below.


For the idea of interoperability in today’s modern technology, networking was the next step. IoT’s supremacy, which is still in the innovation stage, is this concept’s most important invention. A key component of IoT is technology communication, which makes devices more compatible with their surroundings. As the ability of interpretation improves data sharing across the devices and enables them to work with even more competence capabilities, it enhances the feature capacity of the technology. Additionally, one of the aspects of current technologies that is given the most emphasis is user experience. The interface serves as the cornerstone for creating a comfortable user experience. However, because it enables users to easily connect with gadgets while also providing major feature additions, the interface is also thought to be crucial in increasing interoperability in the most recent technology (Javed et al, 2022).


It is defined as the adaptability of any product. Modern technologies also emphasize item scalability to ensure appropriate performance and efficiency. This parameter also assesses the needs met by a specific technology in terms of consumer requirements. Improved scalability ensures that a product can offer more features to customers. The more features in the product, the less money spent on other items and the better the usability of the product (Bondi, 2000).

Fast deployment

Technology deployment and space management are greatly influenced by the technology’s design. Since it takes less time to implement and requires a smaller team, sustainable yet portable deployment is favoured in the modern era of technology. The manufacturing processes are effective and simple in terms of cost and time thanks to intelligent technology in building materials or generic interfaces. The authors go into great detail about creating novel and reliable conventional interfaces and deployment processes for quick deployment.


The foundation of the rigorous trials in broad research disciplines is to outperform the baseline studies in terms of effectiveness and performance. According to this research trend, which has taken into account the resilience of the technologies, the forthcoming technologies will likely be more sophisticated than the ones that came before them. The robustness of modern technology is also regarded as an innovation. Robustness is a technical term that refers to the stringent testing techniques used to determine whether a technology has the ability to overcome constraints and flaws (Baker et al., 2008).

Eco-friendly and efficiency

The electricity that is used by the majority of technologies is the basic source of power. The power source, however, can draw from a variety of fuels. Research and manufacturing technologies have become increasingly eco-friendly and efficient as a result of the acceleration of global warming and unfavorable changes in the world’s weather patterns (Han et al., 2011). With safe environmental emissions, the power consumption of electronic gadgets has greatly lowered. This is essential for the overall well-being of society, but it is also crucial for determining how to manufacture and use items in a way that is economical.

Multi-modal access

This method transforms how technology behaves and is used, particularly in mobile computing. Additionally, it is concerned with the adaptability of applications, enabling them to output the result of input in a variety of ways thanks to different interfaces. The sensors and AI-based algorithms provide up new avenues for application development. Technology becomes more interconnected and usable as a result of the expansion of multi-modal access in the applications, which also expands the available channels for communication (text, voice, and email) (Kettebekov & Sharma, 2001).


Javed, A. R., Shahzad, F., ur Rehman, S., Zikria, Y. B., Razzak, I., Jalil, Z., & Xu, G. (2022). Future smart cities requirements, emerging technologies, applications, challenges, and future aspects. Cities, 129, 103794.

A. B. Bondi, ‘Characteristics of scalability and their impact on performance’, in Proceedings of the 2nd international workshop on Software and performance, New York, NY, USA, Sep. 2000, pp. 195–203. doi: 10.1145/350391.350432.

Baker, J. W., Schubert, M., & Faber, M. H. (2008). On the assessment of robustness. Structural safety, 30(3), 253-267.
Han, H., Hsu, L. T. J., Lee, J. S., & Sheu, C. (2011). Are lodging customers ready to go green? An examination of attitudes, demographics, and eco-friendly intentions. International journal of hospitality management, 30(2), 345-355
Kettebekov, S., & Sharma, R. (2001, December). Toward natural gesture/speech control of a large display. In Engineering for Human-Computer Interaction: 8th IFIP International Conference, EHCI 2001 Toronto, Canada, May 11–13, 2001 Revised Papers (pp. 221-234). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg.