Course Content
Orientation, introduction to the course
1. Human-Robot Interaction (HRI)
2. Research Methods in Human-Robot Interaction
3. Smart Cities & HRI
The demand for city living is already high, and it appears that this trend will continue. According to the United Nations World Cities Report, by 2050, more than 70% of the world's population will be living and working in cities — one of many reports predicting that cities will play an important role in our future (UN-Habitat, 2022). Thus, as cities are growing in size and scope, it is shaped into complex urban landscape where things, data, and people interact with each other. Everything and everyone has become so connected that Wifi too often fails to meet digital needs, online orders don't arrive fast enough, traffic jams still clog the roads and environmental pollution still weighs on cities. New technologies, technical intelligence, and robots can contribute to the direction of finding solutions to ever-increasing problems and assist the evolution of the growing urban space.
Human-Robot Interaction
About Lesson

Repeated Measures ANOVA

In within-subject experiments, where we used more than two groups, we use the repeated measures ANOVA test. Repeated measures ANOVA is the equivalent of the one-way ANOVA, but for related, not independent groups, and is the extension of the dependent t-test. A repeated measures ANOVA is also referred to as a within-subjects ANOVA or ANOVA for correlated samples. All these names imply the nature of the repeated measures ANOVA, that of a test to detect any overall differences between related means. 

Similar to the other ANOVA tests, each level of the independent variable needs to be approximately normally distributed. 


For further reading about repeated measures ANOVA using SPSS, you may read this:

or watch these videos: 


Lazar, J. , Feng, J. H., Hochheiser, H.  (2017), Research methods in human-computer interaction: Morgan Kaufmann, 2017. 

Rosenthal, R., Rosnow, R., 2008. Essentials of Behavioral Research: Methods and Data Analysis, third ed. McGraw Hill, Boston, MA. 

Sauro, J., and Lewis, J. R., (2016).  Quantifying the user experience: Practical statistics for user research: Morgan Kaufmann. 

Dix, A. (2020). Statistics for HCI: Making Sense of Quantitative Data. Morgan & Claypool Publishers.

Robertson, J., & Kaptein, M. (2016). An introduction to modern statistical methods in HCI (pp. 1-14). Springer International Publishing.

Larson-Hall, J. (2015). A guide to doing statistics in second language research using SPSS and R. Routledge.

Aldrich, J. O. (2018). Using IBM SPSS statistics: An interactive hands-on approach. Sage Publications.

Salcedo, J., & McCormick, K. (2020). SPSS statistics for dummies. John Wiley & Sons.