Course Content
Orientation, introduction to the course
1. Human-Robot Interaction (HRI)
2. Research Methods in Human-Robot Interaction
3. Smart Cities & HRI
The demand for city living is already high, and it appears that this trend will continue. According to the United Nations World Cities Report, by 2050, more than 70% of the world's population will be living and working in cities — one of many reports predicting that cities will play an important role in our future (UN-Habitat, 2022). Thus, as cities are growing in size and scope, it is shaped into complex urban landscape where things, data, and people interact with each other. Everything and everyone has become so connected that Wifi too often fails to meet digital needs, online orders don't arrive fast enough, traffic jams still clog the roads and environmental pollution still weighs on cities. New technologies, technical intelligence, and robots can contribute to the direction of finding solutions to ever-increasing problems and assist the evolution of the growing urban space.
Human-Robot Interaction
About Lesson

Measures of Central Tendency

While studying a data set, we often want to determine where most of the data are located. In statistical terms, this characteristic is called the “central tendency.” Various measures can be used to describe the central tendency of a data set, including the mean, the median, and the mode (Rosenthal and Rosnow, 2008). 

  • The mean is the arithmetic average of a data set.  
  • The median is the middle score in a data set.  
  • The mode is the value that occurs with the greatest frequency in a data set. 

When there are numerous groups involved in a study, comparing the means of the groups can offer some early indications of how the groups relate to one another. If we discover that the means of two groups differ noticeably, then we can use statistical tests, such the t test, to determine whether the difference is statistically significant. But we cannot use descriptive statistics to draw conclusions. 

To better understand the mean, median, and mode, watch this video: 

Use can use the MS Excel to calculate mean, median, and mode as shown in this video:  

Or you can use SPSS to calculate mean, median, and mode as shown in this video: 


Rosenthal, R., Rosnow, R., 2008. Essentials of Behavioral Research: Methods and Data Analysis, third ed. McGraw Hill, Boston, MA. 

Dix, A. (2020). Statistics for HCI: Making Sense of Quantitative Data. Morgan & Claypool Publishers.
Robertson, J., & Kaptein, M. (2016). An introduction to modern statistical methods in HCI (pp. 1-14). Springer International Publishing.
Larson-Hall, J. (2015). A guide to doing statistics in second language research using SPSS and R. Routledge.
Aldrich, J. O. (2018). Using IBM SPSS statistics: An interactive hands-on approach. Sage Publications.